Science Practice 1: The student can use representations and models to communicate scientific phenomena and solve scientific problems.
Visual representations and models are indispensable tools for learning and exploring scientific concepts and ideas. The student is able to create representations and models using verbal or written explanations that describe biological processes. The student also can use representations and models to illustrate biological processes and concepts; communicate information; make predictions; and describe systems to promote and document understanding. Illustrative examples of representations and models are diagrams describing the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration; the structure and functional relationships of membranes; and diagrams that illustrate chromosome movement in mitosis and meiosis. Using model kits, the student can build three- dimensional representations of organic functional groups, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The student is able to demonstrate how chemical structures, such as the Watson and Crick model for DNA, link structure to function at the molecular level and can relate key elements of a process or structure across multiple representations, such as a schematic two-dimensional diagram and a space-filling model of DNA. The student can refine and/or revise visual representations of biological processes, including energy flow through ecosystems; immunological processes; movement of molecules in and out of cells; and graphs or other visual data representations of experimental results. The student can use/apply representations and models to make predictions and address scientific questions as well as interpret and create graphs drawn from experimental data.
- 1.1 The student can create representations and models of natural or man- made phenomena and systems in the domain.
- 1.2 The student can describe representations and models of natural or man-made phenomena and systems in the domain.
- 1.3 The student can refine representations and models of natural or man- made phenomena and systems in the domain.
- 1.4 The student can use representations and models to analyze situations or solve problems qualitatively and quantitatively.
- 1.5 The student can reexpress key elements of natural phenomena across multiple representations in the domain.